翻译如何快速得分?释义与转化技巧带你复习翻译

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  • 2019-01-29
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    摘要:很多同学认为qy8千赢国际娱乐英语是当前qy8千赢国际娱乐较难的一部分。在复习时总是会花费较大的时间和精力去做准备工作,然而,在英语中,想要在翻译部分获得高分,了解释义及短语、词汇的内容十分重要。

      ►释义

      释义(paraphrase)是指舍弃原文中的具体形象,直接解释出原文的意思。在翻译一些具有鲜明民族色彩的词语(如成语、典故)时,如果直译不能使译入语读者明白意思,而加注又使译文太噜嗦,并且原文重意不重形、重意不重典时,可采用释义法。它既可使译文简洁明了,又不损害对原文信息的传达。例如: as drunk as a fiddler 酩酊大醉(在古英格兰,民间小提琴手在公共场合为舞蹈伴奏,人们往往以酒酬谢,因此往往会喝得大醉.后人用此成语时,常常重意不重形与典,因此,不必直译为 "像小提琴手一样酩酊大醉",采用释义法即可.)

      as rich as Croesus 十分富有(Croesus 是公元6世纪小亚细亚吕底亚国王,十分富有.如直译为 "像科里瑟斯一样富有",倒让读者十分费解,因为读者不知 "科里瑟斯"为何许人,并且后人用此词时,常常意重于典,所以不如释义为 "十分富有",简单明白.)

      bring down the house 全场喝彩(不能直译为 "把房子都弄倒了")

      (1) It's not easy to become a member of that club-they want people who have plenty of money to spend, not just every Tom, ***, and Harry.

      要参加那个俱乐部并非易事──他们只吸收手头阔绰的人,而不是普通百姓。

      (Tom, ***, Harry都是英美常见的人名,这里泛指任何人,相当于汉语中的"张三、李四、王五".所以,这里不宜直译为"汤姆、迪克、哈里".)

      (2) A Red Light for Scofflaws

      玩忽法令之风不可长!

      (这是美国Time《时代》周刊1983年一篇文章的标题。red light本意是红灯,指停车信号、危险信号。文中指出美国社会中蔑视法令的现象已到了触目惊心的地步,必须采取措施加以制止。译成"玩忽法令之风不可长"一目了然,言简意明。)

      (3) As with Black Power the burgeoning Red Power movement has two components, one cultural, the other political.

      象黑人权力一样,正在蓬勃兴起的印地安人权力运动包括文化运动和政治运动两个部分。

      (这里Red Power显然是从Black Power黑权主义,黑权运动类比出来的。如果译者不释明其义,而直译为"红色权力",读者定会把它理解为"红色政权"或"共产党权力".)

      (4) Our son must go to school. He must break out of the pot that holds us in.

      我们的儿子一定得上学,一定要出人头地。

      ("break out of the pot that holds us in",重意不重形,译为"出人头地"比"打破这个把我们关在里面的罐子"意思来得明白简洁。)

      (5) Like many other Southerners, I came to seek my fortune in one of those pot-at-the-end-of-the-rainbow factories along Euclid Avenue.

      像许多其他的南方人一样,我也来到这儿,沿着尤克利德大道的那些根本不可能给我们提供工作的工厂找工作,做发财梦。

      (根据英语传说,如果人们找到了彩虹与地面交界之处,并在那儿挖掘,就会挖到一罐金子。但这只是人们的幻想,是根本不可能发生的事情。所以,此处重意不重典,自然这里pot-at-the-end-of-the-rainbow factories是指那些根本不可能给南方人提供工作的工厂。)

      (6) The study had a Spartan look.

      书房看起来很简朴。

      (古希腊斯巴达人以生活简朴而著称。可看出,此处重意不重典,所以只用翻译出其意。)

      (7) When I go around on speaking engagements, they all expect me to assume a Quaker-Oats look.我应邀外出演讲时,他们都指望我摆出一付毫无表情、一本正经的面孔。

      (Quaker-Oats是欧美一种有名的麦片商标,商标中画的老头模样毫无表情,我国读者对此并不熟悉。因此,此处意重于形,翻译时得采用释义手法。)

      (8) Early Reagan was a mirror image of early Carter.里根上台时在做法上跟执政初期的卡特毫无二致。

      (a mirror image 如直译为"镜子里的形象",就让人感到非常别扭,远不如"毫无二致"自然。)

      (9) She scolded her maid and was as cross as two sticks.她骂斥自己的女仆,而且脾气非常不好。

      (如直译为"像两根棍子一样暴躁",让人不知所云,并且此处重意不重形,翻译时只好采用释义法。)

      (10) Up Broadway he turned, and halted at a glittering café, where are gathered together nightly the choicest products of the grapes, the silkworm and the protoplasm.

      他拐到百老汇路上,在一家灯火辉煌的饭店前停下来,那里每晚汇集上好的美酒、华丽的衣服和有地位的人物。

      (文中the choicest products of the grapes, the silkworm and the protoplasm如直译为"葡萄、蚕和原生质最精良的产物",难令读者明白其意。这里,grape(葡萄), silkworm(蚕), protoplasm(原生质)属于修饰学上的提喻(synecdoche),用原材料分别指它们的制成品──酒、衣服与人。翻译时只得舍弃原文形象,直接释明其意。)

      (11) Little in his childhood suggested he would someday become a bridge across Latin and Anglo cultures.

      他童年时代没有表现出他会成为沟通拉丁文化与英国文化的桥梁。

      (Anglo culture如直译为"盎格鲁·撒克逊文化",则不够通俗,典型的英国人常常也被称为"盎格鲁·撒克逊人".)

      (12) Words are not themselves a reality but only representation of it, and the King's English, like the Anglo-French of the Normans, is a class representation of reality.

      单词本身并不是客观物体,只不过是代表客观体而已;像日尔曼人的盎格鲁法语一样,标准英语也是一种代表客观体的语言。

      (King's English不能直译为"国王英语",它是指标准英语,相当于汉语中的"普通话".)

      (13). The young girl thumbed her way to the passing cars.

      那个年轻的姑娘站在路边不停地向来往的汽车摆动着竖起的拇指表示她要搭车。

      (thumbed her way 为英语手势语,意为 "站在路边向来往的汽车摆动着竖起的拇指表示她要搭车",在汉语中没有这种手势语,翻译时只有采用释义法,以便让我国读者明白其意.)

      (14). At 19 he had commenced one of those careers attractive and inexplicable to ordinary mortals for whom a single bankruptcy is good as a feast.

      他19岁时就已经走上了一条在普通人看来是极富吸引力而又不可理解的道路,普通人认为,只是一次破产就叫人够呛了。

      (good as a feast 如直译为 "像丰盛的宴席一样好",意思正好反了.直接释明其意 "叫人够呛",地道通顺.)

      (15) She and her mother are as like as two peas.

      她和她母亲长得一模一样.

      (as like as two peas 不能译为 "像两颗豌豆一样相似")

      (16) Look at the chaps in politics and business, whose whole lives were passed in skating on thin ice,and getting knighted for it.

      试看那些政治上和商业上的家伙们,他们整个儿的生活都是在风险中度过的,可是都因此封了爵.

      ( skating on thin ice 如直译为 "如履薄冰",让人产生谨小慎微的联想,与原意不符,故译其意 "在风险中度过".)

      (17) Mr. Kingsley and his Red Brick boys will have to look to their laurels.

      金斯利先生和他那些二流大学的学生们必须小心翼翼地保持已经取得的荣誉。

      (Red Brick又称Red Brick Universities,指英国除牛津、剑桥大学以外的其他地方性二流大学。因其建筑主要是红砖砌成,不象牛津、剑桥的建筑均为古色古香的石块所建成,故得此名。

      (18) Clearly a tug of war over key policies continues between the pragmatic and ideological camps.

      不言而喻,注重务实的和强调意识形态的两大营垒还会在重大政策上争吵不休.

      (tug of war 本意为 "拔河",在此处为比喻用法,指 "双方势均力敌,争吵不休",直译显然不妥,故采用释义法.)

      ►转换法

      英译汉时常常有必要改变表达方式,使译文通顺流畅、地道可读。这种变通技巧就是转换法(shift of perspective)。转换的形式多种多样,大体可分为5种:①词类转换,②句子成分转换,③表达方式转换,④自然语序与倒装语序转换;⑤正面表达与反面表达转换。

      一、词类转换

      词类转换是指英语中的某一词类译成汉语时转换成另一词类。

      (一)英语名词、介词、形容词或副词转换为汉语动词

      (1) The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of first importance to a public man.因此,对于一个从事社会活动的人来讲,培养一种爱好和新的情趣方式,乃是至关重要的对策。

      (2) The Red Army Men marched on bravely against the piercing wind.红军冒着刺骨的寒风英勇前进。

      (3) All were unconscious that this experience was a test of character; and, when the first excitement was over, felt that they had done well, and deserved praise.大家都没有认识到这番经验却是一次个性的考验,最初的兴奋过去以后,又觉得自己已经干得不错了,理应受到赞扬。

      (4) He appeared at her side, breathing audibly, a moment after she reached the stop. She gazed ahead, rigid.她到车站不一会儿,他便出现在她的身旁,听见他喘息的声音。她凝视着前方,表情严峻。

      (5) Yet to both classes the need of an alternative outlook, of a change of atmosphere, of a diversion of effort, is essential.然而,对所有这两种类型的人来说,变换一下看法、改变一下环境和转换一下注意力都是最基本的需要。

      (6) …and it was on the first stage of this journey, in Kenya, that she received the news of her father's death and her own accession to the throne. ……就在此行的第一站肯尼亚,她接到了父亲去世并由她本人继承王位的消息。

      (二)英语动词、副词转换为汉语名词、形容词

      (1) The inflammation is characterized by red, swelling, fever, and pain.炎症的特点是红、肿、热、痛。

      (2) The visiting guests were escorted to the Yellow Crane Tower last Sunday.上星期天,来访的客人和陪同人员一起参观了黄鹤楼。

      (3) Our government shows great concern for the Chinese residents abroad.我国政府十分关心海外华侨。

      (4) Formality has always characterized their relationship.他们之间的关系,有一个特点,就是以礼相待。

      (5) Most US spy satellites are designed to burn up in the earth's atmosphere after completing their missions.美国绝大多数间谍卫星,按其设计,是在完成使命后,在大气层中焚毁。

      (三)英语名词转换为汉语形容词、副词

      (1) He added: "I understand and respect those views, but I deeply believe in the correctness of my decision." 他还说:"我理解并尊重他们的看法,但我深信我的决定是正确的。"

      (2) They came back game and glee.他们兴高采烈地回来了。

      二、句子成分转换

      句子成分转换是指英语中的某一句子成分译成汉语时转换成另一种句子成分。句子成分转换在主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补语之间展开。例如:

      (1) You can always tell the somebodies from the nobodies at a cocktail party. The somebodies come late.在鸡尾酒会上人们常常可以看出大人物和无名小卒来。那些迟到的就是大人物。(主语转换为表语;谓语转换为主语)

      (2) With the fear of largely imaginary plots against his leadership, his self-confidence seemed totally to desert him.由于害怕有人阴谋推翻他的领导,他似乎完全丧失了自信。但所谓的阴谋在很大程度上是他自己假想出来的。(主语转换为宾语,宾语转换为主语)

      (3) Cheerful, efficient and warm-hearted, they will do everything to make your journey smooth and comfortable.他们乐观、能干、热情,总是想方设法使你一路上顺利舒适。(状语转换为谓语)

      (4) Her presence of mind had not completely deserted her; but she could not have trusted herself to speak.她还没有完全失去镇静,一时却又找不出话可说。(主语转换为宾语,宾语转换为主语)

      (5) This is the unexpected kind of remark that makes me like the colonel; there is a touch of rough poetry about him.正是这种出人意料的言论使我喜欢上了上校。他这个人还有那么点诗意呢。(主语转换为宾语;介词宾语转换为主语)

      三、表达方式转换

      英汉两种语言在表达方式上往往因角度不同而异。要克服这些差异,翻译时也就常有必要把一种表达方式转换为另一种表达方式,使译文符合汉语表达习惯。

      (一)英语中有一些计量词,如score, dozen, decade, quarter等,在汉语中没有相应的表达方式,所以在汉译时得对其加以转换。例如:

      (1) Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.

      100年以前,一位伟大的美国人签署了解放宣言,我们现在就站在他象征性的庇荫中。

      (2) A dozen and a half aeroplanes poured out into the airport during that five minutes.

      那5分钟内,有18架飞机涌进了机场。

      (3) Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation.

      87年前,我们的先辈在这个大陆上创建了一个新的国家。

      (4) They had a dozen children, six boys and six girls, in seventeen years.

      在17年中,他们生了12个孩子,6男6女。

      (二)由于英汉两种语言在表述角度上不尽相同,翻译时常常有必要转换角度,才能使意思明白清楚、表达自然。例如:

      (1) She has been a widow only for six months.

      她丈夫死了至今才不过半年。

      (原文是从妻子的角度加以陈述的,而译文是从丈夫的角度加以陈述的。如果不改变表达方式,而搬用原来的表达方式,那译文就是:"她只当了6个月的寡妇。"这就会给人以错觉:她很快就改嫁了。)

      (2)──Is there a special rate by the month?

      ──Yes, there is a 10% discount.

      ──按月计算有什么优惠吗?

      ──有,可以打9折。

      四、自然语序与倒装语序转换

      句子的自然语序是主语在前,谓语在后。倒装语序主要是指主谓倒装。英语中使用倒装语序,主要是为了加强语气、突出重点、平衡句子结构等;而汉语中使用倒装语序相对较少,所以英译汉时,常常得将倒装语序转换为自然语序。例如:

      (1) Away ran the boy.男孩跑开了。

      (2) Slowly climbs the summer moon.夏天的月亮慢慢地爬上来了。

      五、正面表达与反面表达转换

      由于思维方式的不同,英语中有些从正面表达的东西在汉语中习惯从反面来表达;而有些从反面来表达的东西在汉语中则习惯从正面来表达。因此,英译汉时常常有必要进行转换。这就是通常所说的"正说反译、反说正译"法。英语正面表达这里指的是不带否定词no, not , never否定前缀non-, in-, im-, ir-, dis-和否定后缀-less等的句子,汉语正面表达则是指不带"不"、"没"、"非"、"未"、 "否"、 "无"、 "莫"、"勿"、"别"等否定词语的句子;反之则是反面表达。

      (一)英语正面表达转换为汉语反面表达

      frost-free refrigerator无霜冰箱

      Freeze!别动!

      Wet paint!油漆未干!

      mortally ill 不治之症

      (1) The proposal was carried by a very narrow margin.这项建议差点通不过。

      (2)We believe that the younger generation will prove worthy of our trust.我们相信,年轻一代将不会辜负我们的信任。

      (3) He went to an outdoor phone booth and dialed Chicago, then New York, then San Francisco.Silence. Silence. Silence.他到一个户外公用电话亭,先给芝加哥、又给纽约、旧金山打了电话。

      (4) As a place to live, it left much to be desired. As a secret training base for a revolutionary new plane, it was an excellent site, its remoteness effectively masking its activity.作为居住的地方,这里有许多不足之处,但作为改革性的新飞机秘密训练基地,却是非常理想的。因为它地处边陲,人们不易发觉其中的活动。

      (5) The pictures that linger in his mind, called up in a moment by such sensations as the smell of roses or of new-mown hay, are of a simpler nature.然而,萦绕心头的画面,那些一经嗅到玫瑰花香或新鲜干草的气息便会倏地闯入记忆的情景,其实并不复杂。

      (6) As he sipped his coffee, he opened a still damp morning paper; and began reading.他一面喝咖啡,一面翻开油墨未干的晨报,看了起来。

      (7) Father's attitude toward anybody who wasn't his kind used to puzzle me.以前我总不懂父亲为什么对那些脾气跟他不一样的人采取那么个态度。

      (8) Sadly, Edward died before he could see the new church, but his beautiful tomb is still there, with the tombs of the Kings and Queens of England who came after him.遗憾的是,爱德华未能看见新教堂就去世了,但是他那幽雅的坟墓和嗣后的英国国王和王后的坟墓还都留在那里。

      (二)英语反面表达转换为汉语正面表达

      (1) You can't be too careful.你要特别小心。

      (2) The significance of these incidents wasn't lost on us.这些事件引起了我们的重视。

      (3) Such flights couldn't long escape notice.这类飞行迟早会被人发觉的。

      (4) The human system can hold out for a while against the gas from a leaking,damped-down coal stove, but soon after unconsciousness comes death.煤气若是从封上火的煤炉漏出,人体可以忍受一些时候,但人昏迷之后,不用很久就会死亡。

      (5) But there is another story, a family saga, that may turn out to be important to unlocking the mystery of what actually happened between Lewinsky and the President.但是,莱温斯基和总统之间究竟发生了什么事,另外一个故事,即家史,最终对解开这个谜十分重要。

      (6) Maintaining credibility requires confronting potential adversaries with the objective,unambiguous facts of our counter-balancing military capabilities, our political strengths and economic advantages, and our clear resolution to use these for our defense if necessary.保持这种可靠性需要以下客观的、明确的事实来对付潜在的对手:我们达到平衡的军事能力、我们的政治实力和经济优势以及我们必要时使用这些手段进行自卫的毫不含糊的决心。

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